Vehicle-to-Grid Concept for Hydrogen Fuel Cell Hybrid-Electric Regional Trains

Research output: Contribution to conferenceAbstract


Hydrogen fuel cell multiple unit vehicles are acquiring a central role in the transition process towards carbon neutral trains operation in non-electrified regional railway networks. In addition to their primary role as a transport mean, these vehicles offer significant potential for applications in innovative concepts such as smart grids. Compared to the pure electric propulsion systems, fuel cell technology allows for cogeneration processes by recovering generated heat in addition to the provision of the electrical power. This paper presents the analysis of fuel cell hybrid-electric multiple unit vehicle employed in regional railway transport during regular service, and in vehicle-to-grid application during the off-service hours, where it provides the electrical and thermal energy for stationary consumers in terminal stations. The system dynamics are modelled using a backward-looking quasi-static simulation approach, with implemented real-time optimization-based control strategy for managing the power flows between different components. In a case study of selected vehicle and railway services in the Netherlands, the fuel cell system showed average hydrogen consumption of 0.4 kg/km, with the overall electrical efficiency of 38.89%. In vehicle-to-grid scenario, the system satisfied complete stationary power demand, and provided about 327 kWh of thermal energy during two-hours operation, reaching overall cogeneration efficiency of 66.81%.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages1
Publication statusPublished - 2023
EventRailBelgrade 2023: 10th International Conference on Railway Operations Modelling and Analysis - Faculty of Transport and Traffic Engineering University of Belgrade, Belgrade, Serbia
Duration: 25 Apr 202328 Apr 2023


ConferenceRailBelgrade 2023
Abbreviated titleICROMA
OtherRailBelgrade 2023 is the 10th International Conference on Railway Operations Modelling and Analysis (ICROMA). It will promote interdisciplinary discussions in the railway planning and operations research area by combining the expertise of academics and professionals. RailBelgrade 2023 will give researchers, consultants, and industrial practitioners the opportunity to meet, present their latest research, exchange know-how, and discuss current developments and applications. Leading railway scientists from different disciplines and professionals from the railway industry will deliver keynote speeches.
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Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project
Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • Regional railways
  • Hydrogen
  • Fuel cell hybrid-electric systems
  • Vehicle-to-grid


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