Vertical field of view restriction in driver training: A simulator-based evaluation

P.M. van Leeuwen, R. Happee, J.C.F. de Winter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)
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The young driver problem requires remedial measures against speeding and overconfidence. Previous research has shown that increasing the task difficulty during training can enhance subsequent retention performance and prevent overconfidence. In this driving simulator study, we evaluated the training effectiveness of vertical field of view restriction during a self-paced lane-keeping task. Sixty-two young, inexperienced drivers were divided into three groups: a near view (NV) group (upper part of the screen was blanked), a far view (FV) group (lower part of the screen was blanked), and a control group driving with full sight. All groups drove three training sessions lasting 8 min each on a curved rural road, followed by two retention sessions with full sight. The first retention session took place on the same rural road and the second session on a highway. Compared to the control group, the NV group drove with lower mean speed and had more road departures during training. Furthermore, NV drivers reported significantly lower confidence during the training sessions and the second retention session. NV drivers directed their eye gaze more closely to the vehicle during training and both retention sessions. FV drivers approached corners with lower speed compared to the control group during training and had a higher number of rapid steering wheel turns during training and both retention sessions. In conclusion, removing visual information resulted in lower reported self-confidence (NV) and altered steering behavior (FV) in retention sessions compared to driving with full sight. Furthermore, NV training caused drivers to direct their gaze closely to the vehicle during retention, which may be negative for road safety. Possible effects of simulator-based driver training on eye-scanning and safety are discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)169-182
JournalTransportation Research. Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour
Publication statusPublished - 2014

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository 'You share, we take care!' - Taverne project

Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • Simulation
  • Driver training
  • Visual field of view restriction
  • Driving skill
  • Driver behavior


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