Viability assessment of large-scale Claude cycle hydrogen liquefaction: A study on technical and economic perspective

Panji B. Tamarona, Rene Pecnik, Mahinder Ramdin*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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The competitiveness of hydrogen as a sustainable energy carrier depends greatly on its transportation and storage costs. Liquefying hydrogen offers advantages such as enhanced purity, versatility, and higher density, yet current industrial liquefaction processes face efficiency and cost challenges. Although various large-scale and efficient liquefaction concepts exist in the literature, they often overlook the economic and technical viability of such plants. Here, we addresses this issue by establishing a framework for modeling a large-scale hydrogen liquefaction concept and conducting both technical and economic assessments, with a specific focus on 125 tonnes per day (TPD) high-pressure hydrogen Claude-cycle concept. The technical analysis involves preliminary designs of key process components, while the economic assessment utilizes Aspen Process Economic Analyzer. Our findings indicate that at an electricity price of €0.1/kWh, the Claude-cycle liquefier concept yields a specific liquefaction cost (SLC) of €1.55/kgLH2. A sensitivity analysis was performed, which shows that electricity price has a significant influence on the economics. Further investigation on the compressors design shows that incorporating high-speed centrifugal compressors could reduce the SLC by 5.42% and potentially more. Scaling up to 250 and 500 TPD reveals further cost improvements, while cost projections indicate substantial declines as the technology matures. Ultimately, this paper presents novel cost-scaling and experience curves of hydrogen liquefaction technology, demonstrating the compelling economic viability of integrating large-scale hydrogen liquefaction into sustainable energy infrastructure.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)383-396
Number of pages14
JournalInternational Journal of Hydrogen Energy
Publication statusPublished - 2024


  • Claude cycle
  • Hydrogen liquefaction
  • Preliminary-design
  • Process modeling
  • Techno-economic


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