Wavefield focusing using a generalised, potentially asymmetric homogeneous Green's function

Leon Diekmann*, Ivan Vasconcelos, Kees Wapenaar, Evert Slob, Roel Snieder

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Marchenko-type integrals typically relate so-called focusing functions and Green's functions via the reflection response measured on the open surface of a volume of interest. Originating from one dimensional inverse scattering theory, the extension to two and three dimensions set in motion various new developments regarding imaging in complex materials. This extension, however, is based on wavefield decomposition inside the volume and a truncated medium state, i.e. a version of the medium that is reflection-free underneath the focusing location, suggesting that evanescent, refracted and diving waves cannot be included in the representation. We elaborate on a new derivation for Marchenko-like integrals that (i) extends the concept of wavefield focusing by using a generalised homogeneous Green's function, (ii) is based on partial differential equations and thereby allows for additional insights and a new physical intuition for Marchenko equations, (iii) unifies wavefield focusing for open and closed boundary systems, (iv) does not require wavefield decomposition or a truncated medium state, thus including the full wavefield Green's function, (v) enables using forward modelling to obtain, e.g., Marchenko-type, time-compact focusing functions. We place a particular focus on the latter point, illustrating and investigating how to solve the underlying partial differential equations for various types of focusing functions. This paves the way for a deeper understanding of focusing functions as well as advanced full wavefield Marchenko schemes. While the derivations are generally presented for the 3D case, we show numerical examples in 1D.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103071
Number of pages21
JournalWave Motion
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Focusing
  • Green's function
  • Interferometry
  • Inverse scattering
  • Time reversal


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