Why is my bus suddenly so crowded? Spillover effects of the discontinuation of three-in-one policy in Jakarta

Joshua Paundra, Jan van Dalen, Laurens Rook, Wolfgang Ketter

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

Abstract

We assess the case of the abrupt discontinuation of the three-in-one policy, a high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) restriction, in Jakarta, with the objective of mapping potential interdependencies in the transportation system. Statistical investigation of the passenger volume in the bus rapid transit (BRT) system in the whole city before and after the policy change revealed a significant increase in the number of passengers during peak hours, especially in the evening period. The extent of the increase, however, depended on whether the area had been subject to the initial policy restriction. The case of sudden discontinuation of the three-in-one policy in Jakarta illustrates how a change in policy aimed at a single transportation mode may spill over to alternative transportation modes. The importance of acknowledging the systemic nature of urban transportation systems when altering policies intended to discourage the use of a single transportation mode within the larger transportation network is discussed.

Original languageEnglish
JournalCase Studies on Transport Policy
DOIs
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 2021

Keywords

  • Bus rapid transit
  • HOV
  • Jakarta
  • Policy discontinuation
  • Public transport
  • Spillover effect

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