Will automated vehicles affect cyclists’ crossing behavior?

Juan Pablo Nuñez Velasco, Anouk M. de Vries , Haneen Farah, Jan Anne Annema, Bart van Arem, Marjan Hagenzieker

Research output: Contribution to conferenceAbstractScientific



Research investigating the interactions between cyclists and automated vehicles (AVs) is very scarce. So far, only two photo-based studies (Hagenzieker et al., 2019; Rodríguez Palmeiro, van der Kint, Hagenzieker, van Schagen, & de Winter, 2018) and one study using animated videos (Vlakveld & Kint, 2019) have been performed and have generally found conservative dispositions of cyclists towards AVs.


The aim of this study was to determine the main factors influencing cyclists’ crossing intentions when interacting with an AV as compared to a conventional vehicle (CV). A 360 video smartphone-based virtual reality experiment was performed and included 16 different scenarios resulting from four factors with two-levels each: vehicle type, gap size, vehicle speed, right of way. Additional factors considered in the study were trust in AVs, cyclists’ self-reported behaviour, Perceived Behavioural Control (PBC), and Perceived Risk (PR). Forty-seven individuals participated in the VR experiment. A multinomial logistic mixed regression model was developed and estimated.


The primary factors influencing cyclists’ crossing intentions are the distance gap between the cyclist and the vehicle approaching the intersection and the right of way. Neither speed of the approaching vehicle, vehicle appearance, vehicle automation or Trust in AVs had a significant effect on the crossing intentions. Interestingly, participants’ statements whether they trusted AVs as compared to CVs was found to be a better predictor of the crossing intentions compared to their score on the Trust in AVs questionnaire. A positive relation was found between cycling slower or faster and PBC and a negative for PR.


The results of this study concur with previous studies. Cyclists are still cautious towards automated vehicles and do not adapt their behavior when interacting with them, at this point in time. Therefore, vehicle type and appearance did not have an effect on crossing intentions. However, future exposure to AVs may elicit behavioral adaptation from cyclists. Thus, the long term effects of AVs on cyclists should be studied. The relative trust cyclists have in AVs compared to CVs is more important than the absolute trust.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages1
Publication statusPublished - 2022
EventICTTP 2022: International Conference on Traffic and Transport Psychology - Gothenburg, Sweden
Duration: 23 Aug 202225 Aug 2022


ConferenceICTTP 2022


  • Automated Vehicles
  • Cyclists
  • Crossing Behavior
  • Virtual Reality


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