Globally, neonatal mortality remains unacceptability high. Physiological monitoring is foundational to the care of these vulnerable patients to assess neonatal cardiopulmonary status, guide medical intervention, and determine readiness for safe discharge. However, most existing physiological monitoring systems require multiple electrodes and sensors, which are linked to wires tethered to wall-mounted display units, to adhere to the skin. For neonates, these systems can cause skin injury, prevent kangaroo mother care, and complicate basic clinical care. Novel, wireless, and biointegrated sensors provide opportunities to enhance monitoring capabilities, reduce iatrogenic injuries, and promote family-centric care. Early validation data have shown performance equivalent to (and sometimes exceeding) standard-of-care monitoring systems in premature neonates cared for in high-income countries. The reusable nature of these sensors and compatibility with low-cost mobile phones have the future potential to enable substantially lower monitoring costs compared with existing systems. Deployment at scale, in low-income countries, holds the promise of substantial improvements in neonatal outcomes.