Yield-based process capability indices for nonnormal continuous data

Piao Chen, Bing Xing Wang, Zhi Sheng Ye

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Process capability indices (PCIs) are widely used to assess whether an in-control process meets manufacturing specifications. In most applications of classical PCIs, the process characteristic is assumed normally distributed. However, the normal distribution has been found inappropriate in various applications. In the literature, the percentile-based PCIs are widely used to deal with the nonnormal process. One problem associated with the percentile-based PCIs is that they do not provide a quantitative interpretation to the process capability. In this study, new PCIs that have a consistent quantification to the process capability for both normal and nonnormal processes are proposed. The proposed PCIs are generalizations of the classical normal PCIs in the sense that they are the same as the classical PCIs when the process characteristic follows a normal distribution, and they offer the same interpretation to the process capability as the classical PCIs when the process characteristic is nonnormal. We then discuss nonparametric and parametric estimation of the proposed PCIs. The nonparametric estimator is based on the kernel density estimation and confidence limits are obtained by the nonparametric bootstrap, while the parametric estimator is based on the maximum likelihood estimation and confidence limits are constructed by the method of generalized pivots. The proposed methodologies are demonstrated using a real example from a manufacturing factory.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)171-180
JournalJournal of Quality Technology
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 3 Apr 2019
Externally publishedYes


  • confidence limits
  • coverage probability
  • kernel estimation
  • nonparametric bootstrap

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