A Bias-Flip Rectifier With Duty-Cycle-Based MPPT for Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Bias-flip rectifiers are commonly employed for piezoelectric energy harvesting (PEH). This article proposes a synchronized switch harvesting on an inductor (SSHI) rectifier with a duty-cycle-based (DCB) maximum power point tracking (MPPT) algorithm. The proposed DCB MPPT algorithm is based on the mathematically derived relation between the MPPT efficiency and the duty cycle of the bridge rectifier. The resulting equation shows that the MPPT efficiency only depends on the rectifier duty cycle, and is independent of any other system variables, such as voltage bias-flipping efficiency, the open-circuit voltage from the harvester, vibration frequency, etc. As a result, MPPT can be achieved by regulating the duty cycle, simplifying circuit implementation, and achieving self-regulating and continuous MPPT. This design was fabricated in a 180-nm BCD process. The measured results show 98% peak MPPT efficiency and up to 738% output power enhancement.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Publication statusE-pub ahead of print - 2023


  • Bias-flip rectifier
  • Capacitors
  • duty-cycle-based (DCB)
  • Energy harvesting
  • energy harvesting
  • Maximum power point trackers
  • maximum power point tracking (MPPT)
  • piezoelectric energy harvester
  • Power generation
  • Rectifiers
  • synchronized switch harvesting on inductor (SSHI)
  • Vibrations
  • Voltage measurement


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