A design flow of rudder configurations based on maneuvering simulations

Jialun Liu, Robert Hekkenberg, Shijie Li

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


The performance of ship rudders affects ship maneuvering, including, but not limited to, turning ability, yaw checking ability, and course-keeping ability. Previous empirical formulas for the rudder forces did not properly address the impacts of the rudder profile and the interaction between rudders in case there are more than one. To take these factors into account during the selection of rudder configurations, the regression formulas of rudder hydrodynamics that were formulated based on a series of RANS simulations and presented by Liu et al. (2016, 2017b) are applied in this study. With a more accurate estimation of rudder hydrodynamic coefficients, the impacts of rudder configurations on ship maneuvering and resistance are studied with an integrated mathematical model introduced by Liu et al. (2017a) through maneuvering simulations. The impacts of rudder configurations, more specifically rudder profiles, the spacing between twin rudders, and the spacing among quadruple rudders, on ship maneuvering and resistance are summarized. This can be used as a guide for designers to quickly assess their design choices. Accordingly, a design flow is proposed for naval architects to choose a proper rudder configuration, especially for large seagoing ships and inland vessels which commonly have multiple-rudder configurations.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)278-297
JournalJournal of Ship Research
Volume64 (2020)
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • rudder configurations
  • design flow
  • maneuvering simulations
  • ship maneuvering
  • ship resistance

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