A human centric framework for the analysis of automated driving systems based on Meaningful Human Control

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
45 Downloads (Pure)


The future adoption of automated vehicles poses many challenges, with one of the more important being the preservation of control over vehicles that are no longer (fully) operated by drivers. There is consensus that vehicles should not perform actions that are unacceptable to humans. In this paper, we introduce the concept of Meaningful Human Control (MHC) as a function of a framework of the Automated Driving System (ADS). This framework is constructed through the core components that make up the ADS, primarily considered within the categories of the vehicle and driver. Identification of these components and the chain of control allow traceability of MHC to be performed, and aids vehicle manufacturers, software developers, other vehicle component designers, and vehicle- and driver licensing authorities to address many challenges related to the design and preservation of human control in automated vehicles. Operationalisation of MHC is discussed in the paper including a suggested approach that should aid understanding and the application of the concept. Four application examples are given and recommendations are made in regard to vehicle design, human machine interaction, transition of control, driver training, vehicle approval, and other topics. The framework and presented concept also allow researchers to identify areas to perform more explicit and relevant research and develop models that can be applied to perform projections of future impacts.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)478-506
Number of pages29
JournalTheoretical Issues in Ergonomics Science
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • Automated driving systems
  • human behaviour
  • meaningful human control
  • traffic flow
  • vehicle automation
  • vehicle control


Dive into the research topics of 'A human centric framework for the analysis of automated driving systems based on Meaningful Human Control'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this