A Modelling Study to Examine Threat Assessment Algorithms Performance in Predicting Cyclist Fall Risk in Safety Critical Bicycle-Automatic Vehicle lnteractions

M.M. Reijne, Sepehr G. Dehkordi, Sebastien Glaser, D Twisk, A.L. Schwab

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeConference contributionScientificpeer-review

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Falls are responsible for a large proportion of serious injuries and deaths among cyclists [1-4]. A common fall scenario is loss of balance during an emergency braking maneuver to avoid another vehicle [5-7]. Automated Vehicles (AV) have the potential to prevent these critical scenarios between bicycle and cars. However, current Threat Assessment Algorithms (TAA) used by AVs only consider collision avoidance to decide upon safe gaps and decelerations when interacting wih cyclists and do not consider bicycle specific balance-related constraints. To date, no studies have addressed this risk of falls in safety critical scenarios. Yet, given the bicycle dynamics, we hypothesized that the existing TAA may be inaccurate in predicting the threat of cyclist falls and misclassify unsafe interactions. To test this hypothesis, this study developed a simple Newtonian mechanics-based model that calculates the performance of two existing TAAs in four critical scenarios with two road conditions. Tue four scenarios are: (1) a crossing scenario and a bicycle following lead car scenario in which the car either (2) suddenly braked, (3) halted or (4) accelerated from standstill. These scenarios have been identified by bicycle-car conflict studies as common scenarios where the car driver elicits an emergency braking response of the cyclist [8-11] and are illustrated in Figure 1. The two TAAs are Time-to-Collision (TTC) and Headway (H). These TAAs are commonly used by AVs in the four critical scenarios that will be modelled. The two road conditions are a flat dry road and also a downhill wet road, which serves as a worst-case condition for loss of balance during emergency braking [12].
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 10th International Cycling Safety Conference
PublisherTechnische Universität Dresden
Number of pages3
Publication statusPublished - 2022
Event10th International Cycling Safety Conference - Dresden, Germany
Duration: 8 Nov 202211 Nov 2022
Conference number: 10


Conference10th International Cycling Safety Conference
Abbreviated titleICSC 2022


  • cycling safety
  • car-bicycle conflicts
  • all risk
  • threat assessment algorithms
  • automated vehicles

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