A multiscale consolidation model for press molding of hybrid textiles into complex geometries

Vincent Werlen*, Christian Rytka, Clemens Dransfeld, Christian Brauner, Véronique Michaud

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Modeling the consolidation of fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites at the part level presents a formidable computational challenge due to the multi-scale nature of the process. In this article, a method to bypass the multi-scale problem by homogenizing the micro scale and describing the medium with characteristic parameters is described. The model is intended for press molding of hybrid textiles and considers a free-form plate with non-uniform thickness and can describe consolidation in three dimensions with some restrictions. 2D implementation in FEM shows how in-plane matrix pressure gradients can arise in parts and cause fiber disorientation. Experimental verification demonstrates that fiber disorientation arises at the predicted location, and that defect size is proportional to matrix pressure gradient. This novel consolidation model provides new insights, enables part and process optimization, and paves the way for high-quality composite part production. Highlights: A consolidation model for press molding of hybrid textiles is presented. A method to extend consolidation models for complex geometry is presented. The origin of defect formation in complex geometries is explained.

Original languageEnglish
Number of pages19
JournalPolymer Composites
Publication statusPublished - 2024


This work is part of the research project Consolidation of Thermoplastic hybrid yarn materials” ConThP” and is funded by the German Research Foundation [DFG Nr. 394279584] and the Swiss National Science Foundation [200021E/177210/1]. During the preparation of this work, the authors used ChatGPT in order to improve readability and language. The authors kindly thank Mr. Schneeberger and Tissa Glasweberei AG for providing the textiles and for their precious support. Special thanks to Igor Zhylaev for the constructive input regarding model implementation in COMSOL Multiphysics®.


  • consolidation
  • defects
  • fiber-reinforced thermoplastic
  • finite element analysis (FEA)
  • press molding


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