A spectral-domain wave-to-wire model of wave energy converters

Jian Tan, Wei Tao*, Antonio Jarquin Laguna, Henk Polinder, Yihan Xing, Sape Miedema

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)
18 Downloads (Pure)


Wave-to-Wire models play an important role in the development of wave energy converters. They could provide insight into the complete operating process of wave energy converters, from the power absorption stage to the power conversion stage. In order to cover a set of relevant nonlinear effects, wave-to-wire models are predominately established in the time domain. However, the low computational efficiency of time-domain modeling is hindering the extensive application of wave-to-wire models, especially in early-stage design and optimization where a large number of iterations are required. To address this issue, a spectral-domain wave-to-wire model is proposed, and the nonlinear effects are incorporated by stochastic linearization. This model can significantly reduce the computational load and maintain good accuracy. The reference concept studied in this paper is defined as a heaving point absorber coupled with a linear permanent-magnet generator. Four representative nonlinear effects involved in both the hydrodynamic stage and the electrical stage of the concept are considered. The proposed model is verified against a corresponding nonlinear time-domain wave-to-wire model, and a good agreement is observed. The relative error of the proposed spectral-domain wave-to-wire model is around 2 % in typical operational regions and is still within 7 % for wave states with large significant wave heights, regarding the estimate of the power conversion efficiency. Meanwhile, the computational load of the spectral-domain wave-to-wire model is reduced by 2 to 3 orders of magnitudes compared with the conventional time-domain approach. Finally, a case study of tuning the PTO damping to maximize power production is conducted to demonstrate the performance of the proposed spectral-domain wave-to-wire model.

Original languageEnglish
Article number103650
Number of pages16
JournalApplied Ocean Research
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository 'You share, we take care!' - Taverne project https://www.openaccess.nl/en/you-share-we-take-care
Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • Spectral-domain modeling
  • Wave energy converter
  • Wave-to-wire model


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