A Wideband Energy-Efficient Multi-Mode CMOS Digital Transmitter

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This article presents a wideband, energy-efficient digital transmitter (DTX) suitable for multi-mode/multi-band wireless communication applications. It features various operation modes comprising Cartesian (Modes-1/-2) and multi-phase (Modes-3/-4) configurations utilizing LO clocks with different duty cycle in the interleaving/non-interleaving configurations. The multi-phase operation compromises polar and Cartesian features by mapping the I/Q signals into two non-orthogonal basis vectors with a 45° relative phase difference and a 3-bit phase selector scheme. The different operation modes are extensively analyzed and compared. Fabricated in a 40-nm CMOS process with an off-chip matching network, the proposed DTX occupies a core area of 0.72 mm2 and delivers 23.18-dBm RF peak power at 2.1 GHz from a 0.95-V supply voltage with drain/system efficiencies of 66.26%/52.59%, respectively. Utilizing a simple memory-less digital pre-distortion (DPD) for a 160-MHz four-channel 64-quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) signal, the DTX delivers an average P Out of 13.5/11.4/7.7/9.4 dBm, achieving an adjacent channel (power) ratio (ACL(P)R) of better than -42/-40/-40/-38 dBc and an average error vector magnitude (EVM) of -36/-34/-34/-32 dB, operating in Modes-1/-2/-3/-4, respectively. While transmitting a 200-MHz single-channel 256 (1024)-QAM OFDM signal at 2.4 GHz in Modes-1/-4, the average delivered output power is 14.11/9.29 (12.23/7.32) dBm with average drain and system efficiencies of 33.17%/26.3% (23.82%/22.83%) and 24.81%/22.85% (19.34%/18.81%), while the ACLR and EVM are better than -42/-41 (-43/-43) dBc and -34.6/-33.1 (-33.5/-33.9) dB, respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)677-690
Number of pages14
JournalIEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Balun
  • Cartesian
  • CMOS
  • digital power amplifier (DPA)
  • digital pre-distortion (DPD)
  • digital transmitter (DTX)
  • efficient
  • load insensitive class-E
  • Marchand
  • multi-phase
  • radio frequency digital-to-analog converter (RF-DAC)
  • reactance compensation
  • re-entrant
  • wideband


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