Adoption of renewable heating systems and thermal energy communities in the Netherlands: An empirical study

Özge Okur*, Francesco Fiori, Javanshir Fouladvand

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Renewable heating systems (RHS), such as solar thermal, geothermal, heat pumps, wood pellets, biomass, are essential to reduce dependence on fossil fuel-based heating systems and resulting CO2 emissions. Despite their benefits in terms of CO2 emissions, the widespread adoption of RHS has yet to be achieved. This paper aims to get insights into the intention to adopt RHS in the Netherlands For this purpose, it designs and conducts a survey based on the extended version of the theory of planned behavior, with five components: attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, personal norms, and descriptive norms. The survey also includes questions on participation in a thermal energy community. The results show that several factors affect individuals’ intention to adopt RHS. Many individuals in the Netherlands have a positive attitude toward adopting RHS, which is primarily caused by environmental concerns and wanting energy independence for their country. However, the majority of individuals think that they do not have the knowledge, financial means, or time to adopt RHS. Also, individuals who feel strong moral values and responsibilities are more likely to adopt RHS. Most individuals are willing to participate in a thermal energy community, and prefer participating in an energy community over adopting RHS individually. Based on these insights, a number of recommendations are made to stimulate the adoption of RHS in the Netherlands, such as taking into account moral norms, introducing policies to incentivize thermal energy communities, and addressing issues of injustice.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3815-3823
Number of pages9
JournalEnergy Reports
Publication statusPublished - 2024


  • Energy behavior
  • Energy community
  • Energy transition
  • Renewable heating
  • Survey
  • Theory of planned behavior


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