Natural gas hydrates have been an unconventional source of energy since the beginning of this century. Gas-hydrate-filled reservoirs show higher resistivity values compared with water-filled sediments. Their presence can be detected using marine controlled-source electromagnetic methods. We classify acquisition configurations into stationary and moving receiver configurations, which are described in terms of the design group, the operational details, and where they have been used successfully in the field for natural gas hydrate exploration. All configurations showed good numerical results for the detection of a 700 m long gas hydrate reservoir buried 200 m below the seafloor, but only the stationary configurations provided data that can be used to estimate the horizontal boundaries of the resistive part of the reservoir when the burial depth is known from seismic data. We discuss the operational steps of the configurations and provide the steps on how to choose a suitable configuration. Different CSEM configurations were used together with seismic data to estimate the edge of the gas hydrate reservoir and the total volume of the gas hydrates, to optimize the drilling location, to increase production safety, and to improve geological interpretations. It seems that CSEM has become a reliable method to aid in the decision-making process for gas hydrate reservoir appraisal and development.
- marine electromagnetic
- natural gas hydrates