An Inverted Doherty Power Amplifier Insensitive to Load Variation With an Embedded Impedance Sensor in Its Output Power-Combining Network

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Abstract

This article presents an inverted Doherty power amplifier (IDPA) made load insensitive up to 2:1 voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) across its fractional bandwidth with a very compact wideband impedance sensor embedded in its output power-combining network (OPCN). To correct for load variation, a low-loss tunable resonator (TR) is used to ensure ohmic loads to the main and peaking stages at the center frequency of operation. At off-center frequencies, TR is used to present an ohmic load for the main stage, while a digitally adjustable phase shifter is used to (re)align the main and peaking stage's current summation in the OPCN. For ohmic load deviations, the main and peaking stage supply voltages and input drives are adjusted to maintain the ideal Doherty's output power and efficiency profile related to nominal 50Ω loading across the bandwidth. To implement the control of the formerly mentioned technique, a wideband impedance sensor is proposed, which uses the orthogonality of incident and reflected waves and requires only four peak detectors. As proof of principle, a prototype 850-950-MHz IDPA featuring the proposed correction technique, the impedance sensor, and the control loop has been implemented as a printed circuit board (PCB) demonstrator. Measurement results show that the IDPA can maintain constant output power with a tolerance of only ± 0.2 dB while improving the drain efficiency and linearity across the entire fractional bandwidth (11% ) for a VSWR range of 2:1.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)5194-5208
Number of pages15
JournalIEEE Transactions on Microwave Theory and Techniques
Volume71
Issue number12
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Keywords

  • Bandwidth
  • DC–DC power converters
  • Impedance
  • impedance sensor
  • inverted Doherty power amplifier (IDPA)
  • load-insensitive power amplifiers (PAs)
  • Loading
  • Power amplifiers
  • Power generation
  • Radio frequency
  • tunable phase shifter
  • tunable resonators (TRs)
  • Wideband

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