The construction sector is the biggest driver of resource consumption and waste generation in Europe. The European Union (EU) is making efforts to move from its traditional linear resource and waste management system in the construction sector to a level of high circularity. Based on the theory of circular economy, a new paradigm called waste hierarchy was introduced in the EU Waste Framework Directive. This work uses the framework of the waste hierarchy to analyze the practice of construction and demolition waste (CDW) management in Europe. We explore the evolution of the waste hierarchy in Europe and how it compares with the circular economy. Then, based on the framework, we analyze the performance of CDW management in each EU member state. Innovative treatment methods of CDW, focusing on waste concrete, is investigated. This brings insight into optimizing and upgrading the CDW management in light of advanced technologies and steering the pathway for transitioning the EU towards a circular society.
- Circular economy
- Construction and demolition waste (CDW)
- Waste hierarchy
- Waste management