Analyzing the effect of electrode size on electrogram and activation map properties

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Abstract

Background: Atrial electrograms recorded from the epicardium provide an important tool for studying the initiation, perpetuation, and treatment of AF. However, the properties of these electrograms depend largely on the properties of the electrode arrays that are used for recording these signals. Method: In this study, we use the electrode's transfer function to model and analyze the effect of electrode size on the properties of measured electrograms. To do so, we use both simulated as well as clinical data. To simulate electrogram arrays we use a two-dimensional (2D) electrogram model as well as an action propagation model. For clinical data, however, we first estimate the trans-membrane current for a higher resolution 2D modeled cell grid and later use these values to interpolate and model electrograms with different electrode sizes. Results: We simulate electrogram arrays for 2D tissues with 3 different levels of heterogeneity in the conduction and stimulation pattern to model the inhomogeneous wave propagation observed during atrial fibrillation. Four measures are used to characterize the properties of the simulated electrogram arrays of different electrode sizes. The results show that increasing the electrode size increases the error in LAT estimation and decreases the length of conduction block lines. Moreover, visual inspection also shows that the activation maps generated by larger electrodes are more homogeneous with a lower number of observed wavelets. The increase in electrode size also increases the low voltage areas in the tissue while decreasing the slopes and the number of detected deflections. The effect is more pronounced for a tissue with a higher level of heterogeneity in the conduction pattern. Similar conclusions hold for the measurements performed on clinical data. Conclusion: The electrode size affects the properties of recorded electrogram arrays which can respectively complicate our understanding of atrial fibrillation. This needs to be considered while performing any analysis on the electrograms or comparing the results of different electrogram arrays.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104467
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalComputers in Biology and Medicine
Volume134
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Keywords

  • Activation map
  • Atrial fibrillation
  • Atrial mapping
  • Electrode size
  • Electrogram interpolation
  • Electrogram morphology
  • Electrograms
  • Local activation time

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