Array-aided single-frequency state-space RTK with combined GPS, Galileo, IRNSS, and QZSS L5/E5a observations

Wei Li*, Nandakumaran Nadarajah, Peter J.G. Teunissen, Amir Khodabandeh, Yanju Chai

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


The concept of real-time kinematic precise point positioning (PPP-RTK) is to achieve integer ambiguity resolution (IAR) at a single global navigation satellite system (GNSS) user by providing network-derived satellite phase biases (SPBs) in addition to the standard PPP corrections. The integerness of the user ambiguities gets recovered and resolved, obtaining high-precision position solutions with the aid of the precise carrier-phase observables. Most of current PPP-RTK methods focus on processing dual-frequency or multifrequency GNSS network observations. The new developing Indian regional navigation satellite system (IRNSS), however, provides only a single-frequency signal in L-band, and shares the L5 frequency with the American global positioning system (GPS), the European Galileo, and the Japanese quasi-zenith satellite system (QZSS). This contribution proposes a new array-aided state-space RTK (SS-RTK) method following the concept of PPP-RTK, which is applicable to the single-frequency network data processing. A small array of multi-GNSS stations, separated by a few meters, takes the role of reference station to provide a batch of single-frequency RTK corrections. Similar to PPP-RTK, the single-frequency stand-alone user ambiguities are a double-differenced (DD) form after applying the SS-RTK corrections. Based on the proposed array-aided SS-RTK concept, the authors analyze the capability of the single-receiver positioning with IAR using L5/E5a frequency observations from IRNSS, as well as GPS, Galileo, and QZSS. Results from real-data experiments demonstrate that even though stand-alone RTK using current IRNSS satellites is not yet possible, they effectively contribute to the tightly integrated multisystem RTK. By increasing the number of antennas in the array used for SS-RTK corrections, the user would achieve more precise and reliable positions. After increasing the dimension of the array to four antennas, a 4-10% improvement in the IAR success rate is experienced. Moreover, the convergence time of the float solutions, reaching a subdecimeter precision level, reduces from 30 to 40 min (single-antenna array) to about 20 min (four-antenna array).

Original languageEnglish
Article number04017006
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Surveying Engineering
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2017


  • Integer ambiguity resolution (IAR)
  • L5 frequency
  • Multi-global navigation satellite system (GNSS)
  • State-space RTK (SS-RTK)


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