Assessment of the LoD Specification for the Integration of BIM-Derived Building Models in 3D City Models

Jasper van der Vaart, Jantien Stoter*, Abdoulaye Diakité, Filip Biljecki, Ken Arroyo Ohori, Amir Hakim

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeConference contributionScientificpeer-review


Although level of detail (LoD) is a central concept in 3D city modelling, specifying different LoDs in an unambiguous manner is not straightforward. To resolve this, a set of frameworks have been developed. This paper evaluates the suitability of the LoD framework of (Biljecki et al. 2016) for 3D building models that have been generated directly from BIM models. The output of two BIM shell extractors are tested on how well they can be defined by the framework. It was found that although BIM-derived models can be specified by the framework to a certain degree, the framework is not fully capable to also specify lower quality models and to support all the output that may come from BIM shell extractors. This can be resolved by either addressing issues in the shell extractors’ output or in the framework itself. The results of this research can be used to improve the LoD framework and to adjust the shell extractors output to better comply with unambiguous definitions of building models at different LoDs and could be a first step to standardise the conversion of BIM models at different LoDs to be used in urban applications.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationRecent Advances in 3D Geoinformation Science
Subtitle of host publicationProceedings of the 18th 3D GeoInfo Conference
EditorsThomas H. Kolbe, Andreas Donaubauer, Christof Beil
Place of PublicationCham
Number of pages21
ISBN (Electronic)978-3-031-43699-4
ISBN (Print)978-3-031-43698-7, 978-3-031-43701-4
Publication statusPublished - 2024
Event18th 3D Geoinfo Conference - Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany
Duration: 12 Sept 202314 Sept 2023

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Geoinformation and Cartography
ISSN (Print)1863-2246
ISSN (Electronic)1863-2351


Conference18th 3D Geoinfo Conference
Internet address

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository 'You share, we take care!' - Taverne project
Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • LoD framework
  • 3D city model
  • BIM envelope extractor


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