Bargaining-based cooperative energy trading for distribution company and demand response

Songli Fan*, Qian Ai, Longjian Piao

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

78 Citations (Scopus)


This paper studies the energy trading among flexible demand response aggregators (DRAs) and a distribution company (Disco) with self-owned generators. Instead of the conventional non-cooperative game based approach, the trading problem is formulated as a bargaining based cooperative model, where Disco and DRAs collaboratively decide the amounts of energy trade and the associated payments. This cooperative interaction can be beneficial to both Disco and DRAs, by reducing the aggregated peak demand and increasing the potential cost savings. The increased benefits from cooperation are fairly allocated among these participants, based on the Nash bargaining theory. Compared with the non-cooperative game based approach, the proposed bargaining cooperative model can further improve the benefits of Disco and DRAs. Moreover, the bargaining outcome can maximize the social welfare of the system. Considering the privacy and autonomy issues of participants, we utilize a decentralized solution to solve the bargaining problem, with minimum information exchange. Numerical studies demonstrate the effectiveness of the bargaining -based cooperative framework, and also show the improvement of benefits of the system.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)469-482
Number of pages14
JournalApplied Energy
Publication statusPublished - 15 Sep 2018


  • Aggregator
  • Cooperative game
  • Demand response
  • Distribution company
  • Economic interaction
  • Nash bargaining


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