Batching for Green AI - An Exploratory Study on Inference

T.E.R. Yarally, Luis Cruz, Daniel Feitosa, J. Sallou, A. van Deursen

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeConference contributionScientificpeer-review


The batch size is an essential parameter to tune during the development of new neural networks. Amongst other quality indicators, it has a large degree of influence on the model’s accuracy, generalisability, training times and parallelisability. This fact is generally known and commonly studied. However, during the application phase of a deep learning model, when the model is utilised by an end-user for inference, we find that there is a disregard for the potential benefits of introducing a batch size. In this study, we examine the effect of input batching on the energy consumption and response times of five fully-trained neural networks for computer vision that were considered state-of-the-art at the time of their publication. The results suggest that batching has a significant effect on both of these metrics. Furthermore, we present a timeline of the energy efficiency and accuracy of neural networks over the past decade. We find that in general, energy consumption rises at a much steeper pace than accuracy and question the necessity of this evolution. Additionally, we highlight one particular network, ShuffleNetV2 (2018), that achieved a competitive performance for its time while maintaining a much lower energy consumption. Nevertheless, we highlight that the results are model dependent.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication49th Euromicro Conference on Software Engineering and Advanced Applications (SEAA)
Number of pages8
ISBN (Electronic)979-8-3503-4235-2
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project
Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


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