Choice-driven service network design for an integrated fixed line and demand responsive mobility system

Shadi Sharif Azadeh*, J. van der Zee, M. Wagenvoort

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)
33 Downloads (Pure)


Sparsely populated areas tend to be poorly served by Fixed Line and Schedule (FLS) public transport systems as the operation of a regular bus line is not economically viable for such areas. Therefore, introducing a Demand Responsive Transport (DRT) to partially replace FLS can result in increasing mobility service accessibility and inclusion. In this paper, a mixed-integer linear problem (MILP) is proposed to design an integrated FLS and DRT network for a transport operator. Passengers behavior is implicitly incorporated in our proposed approach via a discrete choice model. In addition, a tailored Adaptive Large Neighborhood Search (ALNS) coupled with tabu search and simulated annealing are introduced. We test our algorithm on real instances from a public transport operator in the Netherlands. The proposed algorithm can solve the problem up to 170 times faster than the MILP within 4% to 10% gap. Our proposed resolution approach investigates the temporal and spatial feasibility of deploying these integrated mobility systems based on the service level and provides recommendations to public transport operators.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)557-574
Number of pages18
JournalTransportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Choice models
  • Demand Responsive Transport (DRT)
  • Fixed-Line and Schedule (FLS) public transport
  • Heuristics
  • Inter-modal mobility
  • MILP


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