Circular and Flexible Infill Concepts: Integration of the Residential User Perspective

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)
160 Downloads (Pure)


Circular building has gained considerable attention in the Netherlands during the past decade. It is rooted in concepts such as circular economy (CE) and Cradle-to-Cradle (C2C®), accentuating the closing and coupling of material loops to establish effective and efficient resource flows. Moreover, those concepts adhere to a systemic, holistic worldview, incorporating multiple flows and values. Although social aspects, such as health, wellbeing, and social inclusiveness, are generally part of circular building principles, specific benefits for end-users are not. This paper explores the synergistic potential of circular and flexible (Circ-Flex) criteria from the perspective of enhanced control and convenience for residents. The hypothesis is that without integrating the user domain, replicability of circular building concepts on a larger residential scale cannot be done in a truly sustainable manner. The paper is structured around two objectives: (1) further identifying the relationship between flexible and circular building; and (2) exploring the impact of circular, flexible building concepts and practices for the users of multi-family housing, specifically regarding interior partitioning. The research follows a mixed-mode methodology comprising of literature review, case study, expert consultations and a quick-scan assessment. Eleven Circ-Flex criteria are explored, grouped in three categories: flexibility capacity, circularity capacity, and user capacity. These criteria are applied to two partitioning variants, whilst exploring the performance regarding material circulation and user benefits
Original languageEnglish
Article number261
Number of pages19
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2019


  • circular building
  • flexible building
  • user integration
  • materials
  • circular economy
  • sustainable housing


Dive into the research topics of 'Circular and Flexible Infill Concepts: Integration of the Residential User Perspective'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this