Co-eigenvector Graphs

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Except for the empty graph, we show that the orthogonal matrix X of the adjacency matrix A determines that adjacency matrix completely, but not always uniquely. The proof relies on interesting properties of the Hadamard product Ξ = X ◦ X. As a consequence of the theory, we show that irregular co-eigenvector graphs exist only if the number of nodes N ≥ 6. Coeigenvector graphs possess the same orthogonal eigenvector matrix X, but different eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix. Co-eigenvector graphs are the dual of co-spectral graphs, that share all eigenvalues of the adjacency matrix, but possess a different orthogonal eigenvector matrix. We deduce general properties of co-eigenvector graph and start to enumerate all co-eigenvector graphs on N = 6 and N = 7 nodes. Finally, we list many open problems.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to) 34-59
Number of pages26
JournalLinear Algebra and Its Applications
Publication statusPublished - 2024


  • graph spectra
  • eigenvectors
  • eigenvalues
  • co-eigenvector graphs


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