Cognitive warfare: an ethical analysis

Seumas Miller*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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This article characterises the nature of cognitive warfare and its use of disinformation and computational propaganda and its political and military purposes in war and in conflict short of war. It discusses both defensive and offensive measures to counter cognitive warfare and, in particular, measures that comply with relevant moral principles.
Original languageEnglish
Article number46
JournalEthics and Information Technology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Cognitive warfare
  • Computational propaganda
  • Disinformation
  • Freedom of communication
  • Liberal democracy
  • Necessity
  • Proportionality


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