Comparison of acute phase response in mice after inhalation and intratracheal instillation of molybdenum disulphide and tungsten particles

Claudia Torero Gutierrez, Charis Loizides, Iosif Hafez, George Biskos, Katrin Loeschner, Anders Brostrøm, Martin Roursgaard, Anne Thoustrup Saber, Peter Møller, More Authors

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Inhalation studies are the gold standard for assessing the toxicity of airborne materials. They require considerable time, special equipment, and large amounts of test material. Intratracheal instillation is considered a screening and hazard assessment tool as it is simple, quick, allows control of the applied dose, and requires less test material. The particle-induced pulmonary inflammation and acute phase response in mice caused by intratracheal instillation or inhalation of molybdenum disulphide or tungsten particles were compared. End points included neutrophil numbers in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, Saa3 mRNA levels in lung tissue and Saa1 mRNA levels in liver tissue, and SAA3 plasma protein. Acute phase response was used as a biomarker for the risk of cardiovascular disease. Intratracheal instillation of molybdenum disulphide or tungsten particles did not produce pulmonary inflammation, while molybdenum disulphide particles induced pulmonary acute phase response with both exposure methods and systemic acute phase response after intratracheal instillation. Inhalation and intratracheal instillation showed similar dose–response relationships for pulmonary and systemic acute phase response when molybdenum disulphide was expressed as dosed surface area. Both exposure methods showed similar responses for molybdenum disulphide and tungsten, suggesting that intratracheal instillation can be used for screening particle-induced acute phase response and thereby particle-induced cardiovascular disease.

Original languageEnglish
Article number13915
Pages (from-to)265-278
Number of pages14
JournalBasic and Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • acute phase response
  • inhalation
  • intratracheal instillation
  • molybdenum disulphide
  • tungsten

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