Continuous Subjective Rating of Perceived Motion Incongruence During Driving Simulation

Diane Cleij, Joost Venrooij, Paolo Pretto, Daan M. Pool, M. Mulder, Heinrich H. Bulthoff

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

26 Citations (Scopus)
85 Downloads (Pure)


Motion cueing algorithms are used in motion simulation to map the inertial vehicle motion onto the limited simulator motion space. This mapping causes mismatches between the unrestricted visual motion and the constrained inertial motion, which results in perceived motion incongruence (PMI). It is still largely unknown what exactly causes visual and inertial motion in a simulator to be perceived as incongruent. Current methods for measuring motion incongruence during motion simulation result in time-invariant measures of the overall incongruence, which makes it difficult to determine the relevance of the individual and short-duration mismatches between visual and inertial motion cues. In this paper, a novel method is presented to subjectively measure the time-varying PMI continuously throughout a simulation. The method is analyzed for reliability and validity of its measurements, as well as for its applicability in relating physical short-duration cueing errors to PMI. The analysis shows that the method is reliable and that the results can be used to obtain a deeper insight into the formation of motion incongruence during driving simulation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)17 - 29
JournalIEEE Transactions on Human-Machine Systems
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Feb 2018


  • Cueing
  • human factors
  • perception
  • simulation
  • simulator validation
  • virtual reality


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