Cyber-Physical Testbed Co-simulation Real-Time: Normal and Abnormal System Frequency Response

Jose Miguel Riquelme-Dominguez, Francisco Gonzalez-Longatt, Andre Felipe Silva Melo, Jose Luis Rueda, Peter Palensky

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review


Future carbon-neutral power systems impose many challenges; one is the urgent need for a simulation platform that allows replicating the complex systems’ actual dynamic performance. This paper shows the results of implementing a cyber-physical testbed co-simulation in real-time to analyse the system frequency response considering primary frequency control and emergency frequency control: under-frequency load-shedding (UFLS) protection schemes. The proposed testbed uses a physical layer of two real-time simulators from different vendors in a closed loop, Opal-RT OP4510 and Typhoon HIL 604, being the first simulator for test system modelling and the remainder used to implement the UFLS protection scheme. Two connections of the real-time simulators are considered: physical connection using wires to exchange analogue signals and cybernetic digital communication using ANSI C37.118 communication protocol. The cybernetic layer of the testbed models a test system, controls the real-time simulation, and implements digital communication between the simulators. A modified version of the P.M. Anderson 9-bus systems is used for testing purposes, including phasor measurement units (PMUs). Results of the real-time simulation show the appropriate performance of the proposed testbed.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2643-2652
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Industry Applications
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project
Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • ANSI C37.118
  • Co-simulation
  • Cybernetics
  • Frequency response
  • hardware-in-the-loop
  • low inertia power systems
  • Physical layer
  • Power systems
  • Protocols
  • real-time
  • Real-time systems
  • system frequency response
  • Tropical cyclones


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