Delamination link-ups in composite laminates due to multiple hail impacts

Mojtaba Sadighi, René Alderliesten, Azadeh Fathi, Babak Soltannia‬, Reza Hedayati*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

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Damages to aircraft fuselages by ice impactors are categorized as barely visible impact damage (BVID). As the application of composite laminates in manufacturing aircraft fuselage is increasing rapidly, studying hail impact on composite laminates seems crucial. Investigation of variation of delamination area and link-up area for different impact scenarios between ice and carbon fibre prepreg composite plates is the main goal of this study. Link-up refers to joining of delaminated areas created by separate impacts at relatively close impact locations. To this aim, multiple impacts at 1 and up to 6 impact locations and with different impactor energies were simulated using SPH formulation, and delamination areas were quantified. The results showed that as the spacing L between two impact locations increases from 0 to 4R (where R denotes the impactor radius), the total delamination area first shows an increase up to a peak point (usually at R<L<2R) after which it shows a large drop, and after L≈2R, the total delamination area level remains almost constant. The large drop is related to disappearance of the link-up phenomenon beyond a certain spacing. Moreover, it was observed that increasing the number of impact locations increases the delamination area almost linearly. As for the impactor energy influence, the results showed that as the impact energy increases, the threshold spacing for link-up increases. Moreover, for the case of impact at two locations and constant total energy level, two impactors with identical energy level lead to higher delamination area as compared to impactors with non-identical energy levels.

Original languageEnglish
Article number116729
JournalEngineering Structures
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Composites
  • Delamination
  • Finite element
  • Hail
  • Ice
  • Impact
  • SPH


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