Designed to fit: The use of 3D anthropometric data of children’s heads and faces in mask design

Research output: ThesisDissertation (TU Delft)

43 Downloads (Pure)


When designing products like bicycle helmets or oxygen masks, achieving a good fit is crucial for optimal functioning, usability, safety, and comfort. Integrating anthropometric data in the development and design of products, workplaces, and environments whilst understanding the variations in anthropometric measurements amongst users will improve the usability, comfort, efficiency and interaction of products, subsequently enhancing the overall user experience.

Thus, accurate and detailed measurements of the human body shape in general and for a specific target population in particular, are essential for designing products that require a close fit. Therefore, designers should integrate relevant properties of the body, especially anthropometric dimensions in their design process to optimize the fit between the product and the relevant body part. Recent advancements in 3D imaging technologies have made it possible to collect anthropometric data faster, with higher accuracy and reproducibility. This has led to the increasing use of 3D imaging technologies in anthropometric surveys worldwide, providing detailed anthropometric information for the design of products that closely conform to the human body.

Although various anthropometric tools are available, both in 2D and 3D, designers often rely on traditional 1D anthropometric information when designing and sizing products due to familiarity, ease of use, and cost-efficiency of these tools. However, traditional anthropometric information may not provide sufficient details about the human body shape required for developing products with an optimal fit. While there are advantages to using 3D anthropometric data, there are challenges in integrating it into the design process. The complexity and large quantity of data, making it challenging to sort and analyse both quantitatively and qualitatively. Additionally, there is a lack of established procedures on how to effectively use 3D anthropometric data in product sizing, and limited research has been conducted on its application in the design process and the needs of designers themselves...
Original languageEnglish
QualificationDoctor of Philosophy
Awarding Institution
  • Delft University of Technology
  • Goossens, R.H.M., Supervisor
  • Molenbroek, J.F.M., Advisor
Award date22 Nov 2023
Print ISBNs978-94-6384-507-6
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • 3D anthropometry
  • Dutch children
  • head and face
  • representative face model
  • parametric design
  • virtual fit testing
  • mask design


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