Determination of Maximum Wind Power Penetration Considering Wind Turbine Fast Frequency Response

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This paper presents a study based on sensitivity analysis to investigate the impact of fast frequency response (FFR) capability of type 4 wind turbine units on the overall frequency performance of interconnected power systems with low inertia. FFR capability is implemented by means of a control loop for inertia emulation (IE), which is superimposed on the active power control channel of the machine side converter of the wind turbine. All parameters of IE are assessed via sensitivity analysis to ascertain their influence on the system frequency performance within the time window of the frequency containment period. Both individual and collective response of the wind turbines are assessed to determine if the penetration level of wind power can be increased by customizing IE with the best parameter values found via sensitivity analysis. Numerical results, obtained by using a 3-area benchmark power system, illustrate the degree of increase in wind penetration level that can be achieved when choosing a suitable combination of wind turbine locations and considering suggested settings for IE.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2019 IEEE Milan PowerTech
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)978-1-5386-4722-6
ISBN (Print)978-1-5386-4723-3
Publication statusPublished - 2019
Event2019 IEEE Milan PowerTech, PowerTech 2019 - Milan, Italy
Duration: 23 Jun 201927 Jun 2019


Conference2019 IEEE Milan PowerTech, PowerTech 2019

Bibliographical note

Green Open Access added to TU Delft Institutional Repository ‘You share, we take care!’ – Taverne project
Otherwise as indicated in the copyright section: the publisher is the copyright holder of this work and the author uses the Dutch legislation to make this work public.


  • Fast frequency response
  • Inertia emulation
  • Primary frequency control
  • Wind power plant integration
  • Wind turbine


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