In most bacteria, chromosome segregation is driven by the ParABS system where the CTPase protein ParB loads at the parS site to trigger the formation of a large partition complex. Here, we present in vitro studies of the partition complex for Bacillus subtilis ParB, using single-molecule fluorescence microscopy and AFM imaging to show that transient ParB–ParB bridges are essential for forming DNA condensates. Molecular Dynamics simulations confirm that condensation occurs abruptly at a critical concentration of ParB and show that multimerization is a prerequisite for forming the partition complex. Magnetic tweezer force spectroscopy on mutant ParB proteins demonstrates that CTP hydrolysis at the N-terminal domain is essential for DNA condensation. Finally, we show that transcribing RNA polymerases can steadily traverse the ParB–DNA partition complex. These findings uncover how ParB forms a stable yet dynamic partition complex for chromosome segregation that induces DNA condensation and segregation while enabling replication and transcription.