Effectiveness of UV-C light irradiation on disinfection of an eSOS® smart toilet evaluated in a temporary settlement in the Philippines

Fiona Zakaria*, Bertin Harelimana, Josip Ćurko, Jack van de Vossenberg, Hector A. Garcia, Christine Maria Hooijmans, Damir Brdjanovic

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


Ultraviolet germicidal (short wavelength UV-C) light was studied as surface disinfectant in an Emergency Sanitation Operation System® smart toilet to aid to the work of manual cleaning. The UV-C light was installed and regulated as a self-cleaning feature of the toilet, which automatically irradiate after each toilet use. Two experimental phases were conducted i.e. preparatory phase consists of tests under laboratory conditions and field testing phase. The laboratory UV test indicated that irradiation for 10 min with medium–low intensity of 0.15–0.4 W/m2 could achieve 6.5 log removal of Escherichia coli. Field testing of the toilet under real usage found that UV-C irradiation was capable to inactivate total coliform at toilet surfaces within 167-cm distance from the UV-C lamp (UV-C dose between 1.88 and 2.74 mW). UV-C irradiation is most effective with the support of effective manual cleaning. Application of UV-C for surface disinfection in emergency toilets could potentially reduce public health risks.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)536-553
Number of pages18
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Health Research
Issue number5-6
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • emergencies
  • field test
  • surface disinfection
  • toilet
  • UV


Dive into the research topics of 'Effectiveness of UV-C light irradiation on disinfection of an eSOS<sup>®</sup> smart toilet evaluated in a temporary settlement in the Philippines'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this