Evaluation of chemical parameters of urban drinking water quality along with health risk assessment: A case study of ardabil province, iran

Reza Aghlmand, Saeed Rasi Nezami, Ali Abbasi

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Abstract

In recent years, in addition to water resources’ quantity, their quality has also received much attention. In this study, the quality of the urban water distribution network in northwestern Iran was evaluated using the water quality index (WQI) method. Then, some important trace elements were investigated, and finally, the health risk assessment was evaluated for both carcinogenic elements (Ni, Cd, Cr, Pb, and As) and non-carcinogenic elements (Ca, Mg, Na, K, F, NO3, and Cu) using carcinogenic risk (CR) and hazard quotient (HQ), respectively. In the present study, the WQI was calculated based on both World Health Organization (WHO) and Iranian drinking water standards. Comparing the results of these standards revealed that the WQI based on the Iranian standard was slightly higher. Regarding the calculated WQI for the study region, the status of water quality for drinking consumption is in the good water quality class (25 < WQI < 50). It was observed that Cu and Cd have the highest and lowest concentrations in all sampling points, respectively. Hazard Index (HI) results showed that the non-carcinogenic substances studied had a low risk for both adults and children (<1.0). However, the CR results showed that Ni, Cd, and As were above the desired level for both children and adults. The results of this study can be applied for efficient water management and human health protection programs in the study area.

Original languageEnglish
Article number5179
Number of pages11
JournalInternational Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Volume18
Issue number10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Keywords

  • Carcinogenic/non-carcinogenic risk
  • Health risk assessment
  • Parsabad city
  • Trace elements
  • Water quality index

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