First Demonstration of Dynamic High-Gain Beam Steering With a Scanning Lens Phased Array

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We report on the first demonstration of dynamic beam steering using a scanning lens phased array. A scanning lens phased array relies on a combination of mechanical and electrical phase shifting to dynamically steer a high-gain beam beyond the grating-lobe free region using a sparse array. These two concepts have been demonstrated separately in the past, here we present, for the first time, a prototype demonstration where active mechanical and electrical phase shifting are combined. For this purpose, we have developed a sparse 4x1 scanning lens phased array at W-band (75-110 GHz) capable of beam steering a directive beam (>30 dBi) towards ± 20° with low grating lobe levels (around -10 dB). The lens array is fed by a waveguide-based leaky-wave feeding architecture that illuminates the lenses with high aperture efficiency over a wide bandwidth, which is required in the proposed scanning lens phased array architecture. The electrical phase shifting has been implemented using IQ-mixers around 15 GHz in combination with x6 multipliers to reach the W-band. The mechanical phase shifting relies on a piezo-electric motor, which is able to achieve displacements of the lens array of 6 mm with an accuracy of a few nanometers. The entire active array is calibrated over the air with an ad-hoc quasi-optical measurement setup. Resulting measurements show excellent agreement with the anticipated performance.
Original languageEnglish
Article number9796633
Pages (from-to)1-10
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Journal of Microwaves
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Beam steering
  • Lens Antennas
  • millimeter waves
  • phase shifting
  • phased arrays


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