Flow Modelling for Wind Farm Control: 2D vs. 3D

Maarten J. Van Den Broek*, Benjamin Sanderse, Jan Willem Van Wingerden

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articleScientificpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)
26 Downloads (Pure)


Control-oriented models provide a basis for wind farm control to improve power production and reduce structural loading. Wake steering is considered to be one of the most promising techniques to achieve this. Wind turbine wakes under yaw misalignment are deflected downstream and have been shown to produce a curled or kidney-shaped structure. A Navier-Stokes based code called FRED was developed to model wind farm flow in 2D to perform yaw control. To tackle the differences between 2D and 3D flow, this work introduces a generalised continuity correction and wind turbine force scaling terms to the FRED framework. The effectiveness of approximating 3D results is tested by comparison with 3D simulations in the same framework. The continuity correction is now applicable to general wind directions and effective in reducing wake width and speed-up effects. The magnitude of wake deflection can be tuned using a force scaling term. However, we show that there remains a qualitative difference in the deflection profile downstream, as well as a difference in the propagation of yaw effects over time. From this study we can conclude that there is a fundamental difference between 2D and 3D flow physics in spatial and temporal dynamics which makes the 2D modelling approach challenging for control without further empirical adjustments. The necessary corrections are likely to be complex and non-physical, leading to a departure from the first principles foundation that FRED is developed from.

Original languageEnglish
Article number032086
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of Physics: Conference Series
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2022
Event2022 Science of Making Torque from Wind, TORQUE 2022 - Delft, Netherlands
Duration: 1 Jun 20223 Jun 2022


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