From cyclic sand ratcheting to tilt accumulation of offshore monopiles: 3D FE modelling using SANISAND-MS

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Serviceability criteria for offshore monopiles include the estimation of long-term, permanent tilt under repeated operational loads. In the lack of well-established analysis methods, experimental and numerical research has been carried out in the last decade to support the fundamental understanding of monopile-soil interaction mechanisms, and the conception of engineering methods for monopile tilt predictions. With focus on the case of monopiles in sand, this work shows how step-by-step/implicit, three-dimensional finite element modelling can be fruitfully applied to the analysis of cyclic monopile-soil interaction and related soil deformation mechanisms. To achieve adequate simulation of cyclic sand ratcheting and densification around the pile, the SANISAND-MS model recently proposed by Liu et al. (2019b) is adopted. The link between local soil behaviour and global monopile response to cyclic loading is discussed through detailed analysis of model prediction. Overall, the results of numerical parametric studies confirm that the proposed 3D FE modelling framework can reproduce relevant experimental evidence about monopile-soil interaction, and support future improvement of engineering design methods.
Original languageEnglish
Number of pages17
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • offshore wind
  • monopile
  • cyclic loading
  • tilt
  • constitutive modelling
  • finite element modelling

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