From statistical relational to neurosymbolic artificial intelligence: A survey

Giuseppe Marra*, Sebastijan Dumančić, Robin Manhaeve, Luc De Raedt

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

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Abstract

This survey explores the integration of learning and reasoning in two different fields of artificial intelligence: neurosymbolic and statistical relational artificial intelligence. Neurosymbolic artificial intelligence (NeSy) studies the integration of symbolic reasoning and neural networks, while statistical relational artificial intelligence (StarAI) focuses on integrating logic with probabilistic graphical models. This survey identifies seven shared dimensions between these two subfields of AI. These dimensions can be used to characterize different NeSy and StarAI systems. They are concerned with (1) the approach to logical inference, whether model or proof-based; (2) the syntax of the used logical theories; (3) the logical semantics of the systems and their extensions to facilitate learning; (4) the scope of learning, encompassing either parameter or structure learning; (5) the presence of symbolic and subsymbolic representations; (6) the degree to which systems capture the original logic, probabilistic, and neural paradigms; and (7) the classes of learning tasks the systems are applied to. By positioning various NeSy and StarAI systems along these dimensions and pointing out similarities and differences between them, this survey contributes fundamental concepts for understanding the integration of learning and reasoning.

Original languageEnglish
Article number104062
Number of pages30
JournalArtificial Intelligence
Volume328
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2024

Keywords

  • Learning and reasoning
  • Neurosymbolic AI
  • Probabilistic logics
  • Statistical relational AI

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