Understanding of thermal adaptation mechanisms in yeast is crucial to develop better-adapted strains to industrial processes, providing more economical and sustainable products. We have analyzed the transcriptomic responses of three Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains, a commercial wine strain, ADY5, a laboratory strain, CEN.PK113-7D and a commercial bioethanol strain, Ethanol Red, grown at non-optimal temperatures under anaerobic chemostat conditions. Transcriptomic analysis of the three strains revealed a huge complexity of cellular mechanisms and responses. Overall, cold exerted a stronger transcriptional response in the three strains comparing with heat conditions, with a higher number of down-regulating genes than of up-regulating genes regardless the strain analyzed. The comparison of the transcriptome at both sub- and supra-optimal temperatures showed the presence of common genes up- or down-regulated in both conditions, but also the presence of common genes up- or down-regulated in the three studied strains. More specifically, we have identified and validated three up-regulated genes at sub-optimal temperature in the three strains, OPI3, EFM6 and YOL014W. Finally, the comparison of the transcriptomic data with a previous proteomic study with the same strains revealed a good correlation between gene activity and protein abundance, mainly at low temperature. Our work provides a global insight into the specific mechanisms involved in temperature adaptation regarding both transcriptome and proteome, which can be a step forward in the comprehension and improvement of yeast thermotolerance.
- Temperature tolerance