High-Density Microporous Li4Ti5O12 Microbars with Superior Rate Performance for Lithium-Ion Batteries

Linkai Tang, Yan Bing He*, Chao Wang, Shuan Wang, Marnix Wagemaker, Baohua Li, Quan Hong Yang, Feiyu Kang

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticleScientificpeer-review

54 Citations (Scopus)
37 Downloads (Pure)


Nanosized Li4Ti5O12 (LTO) materials enabling high rate performance suffer from a large specific surface area and low tap density lowering the cycle life and practical energy density. Microsized LTO materials have high density which generally compromises their rate capability. Aiming at combining the favorable nano and micro size properties, a facile method to synthesize LTO microbars with micropores created by ammonium bicarbonate (NH4HCO3) as a template is presented. The compact LTO microbars are in situ grown by spinel LTO nanocrystals. The as-prepared LTO microbars have a very small specific surface area (6.11 m2 g−1) combined with a high ionic conductivity (5.53 × 10−12 cm−2 s−1) and large tap densities (1.20 g cm−3), responsible for their exceptionally stable long-term cyclic performance and superior rate properties. The specific capacity reaches 141.0 and 129.3 mAh g−1 at the current rate of 10 and 30 C, respectively. The capacity retention is as high as 94.0% and 83.3% after 500 and 1000 cycles at 10 C. This work demonstrates that, in situ creating micropores in microsized LTO using NH4HCO3 not only facilitates a high LTO tap density, to enhance the volumetric energy density, but also provides abundant Li-ion transportation channels enabling high rate performance.

Original languageEnglish
Article number1600311
JournalAdvanced Science Letters
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 May 2017


  • high tap densities
  • Li-ion batteries
  • lithium titanate
  • microporous microbars
  • NHHCO templates


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