High-Speed Tapping Mode AFM Utilizing Recovery of Tip-Sample Interaction

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We propose to use the State Estimation by Sum-of-Norms Regularisation (STATESON-)algorithm for recovering the tip-sample interaction in high-speed tapping mode atomic force microscopy (AFM). This approach enables accurate sample height estimation for each independent cantilever oscillation period, provided that the tip-sample interaction dominates the noise. The entire course of the cantilever deflection signal is compared to a modelled counterpart in subsequent convex minimisations, such that the sparse tip-sample interaction can be recovered. Afterwards, the sample height is determined using the minimum smoothed cantilever deflection per cantilever oscillation period. Results from simulation experiments are in favour of the proposed approach as it consistently reveals sharp edges in sample height, as opposed to both the conventional and a closely related existing approach. However, the non-processed cantilever deflection provided most accurate sample height estimation. It is recommended to implement the STATESON-algorithm in the form of a filter to use it in feedback control of the scanner and cantilever excitation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)273-279
JournalIEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Atomic force microscopy
  • Biology
  • Force
  • Kalman filters
  • Measurement by laser beam
  • Oscillators
  • State estimation
  • Time measurement
  • Tip-sample interaction

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