The most important prognostic factor for the survival of advanced-stage epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) is the completeness of cytoreductive surgery (CRS). Therefore, an intraoperative technique to detect microscopic tumors would be of great value. The aim of this pilot study is to assess the feasibility of near-infrared hyperspectral imaging (HSI) for EOC detection in ex vivo tissue samples. Images were collected during CRS in 11 patients in the wavelength range of 665–975 nm, and processed by calibration, normalization, and noise filtering. A linear support vector machine (SVM) was employed to classify healthy and tumorous tissue (defined as >50% tumor cells). Classifier performance was evaluated using leave-one-out cross-validation. Images of 26 tissue samples from 10 patients were included, containing 26,446 data points that were matched to histopathology. Tumorous tissue could be classified with an area under the curve of 0.83, a sensitivity of 0.81, a specificity of 0.70, and Matthew’s correlation coefficient of 0.41. This study paves the way to in vivo and intraoperative use of HSI during CRS. Hyperspectral imaging can scan a whole tissue surface in a fast and non-contact way. Our pilot study demonstrates that HSI and SVM learning can be used to discriminate EOC from surrounding tissue.
- hyperspectral imaging
- ovarian epithelial carcinoma
- cytoreduction surgical procedure
- support vector machine