In-series sample methodology for permeability characterization demonstrated on carbon nanotube-grafted alumina textiles

Jeroen Staal, Baris Caglar, Travis Hank, Brian L. Wardle, Larissa Gorbatikh, Stepan V. Lomov, Véronique Michaud

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Abstract

In-plane permeability of small area (100 × 50 mm) alumina fiber woven fabrics grafted with aligned carbon nanotubes (CNT) was quantified by placing them in series with a glass mat of known permeability during a flow experiment. The methodology was first validated on a reference woven textile. Permeability values matched those obtained by a direct method within a margin of ±15%. Permeabilities of radial-aligned (short CNT, SCNT) and so-called ‘Mohawk’ (long CNT, LCNT) morphologies of the CNT-grafted samples were then measured and compared to the non-grafted alumina, showing a decrease attributed to a change in local textile structure as assessed in previous studies. Unsaturated permeability decreased by 77% after SCNT- and 88% after LCNT-grafting, while saturated permeability further decreased by 90% and 93%, respectively. The high ratio of unsaturated to saturated permeability (in the range of 1.14 – 2.89) implies that capillary wicking contributes largely to the impregnation of CNT-grafted fabrics.

Original languageEnglish
Article number106631
JournalComposites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing
Volume150
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2021

Funding

We acknowledge the Swiss Competence Center for Energy Research (SCCER) Mobility of the Swiss Innovation Agency (Innosuisse) and the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNF-182669) for financial support. This work was partially supported by Airbus, ANSYS, Embraer, Lockheed Martin, Saab AB, Saertex, and Teijin Carbon America through MIT's Nano-Engineered Composite aerospace Structures (NECST) consortium. The KU Leuven team acknowledges the university funding in the framework of the C2 PERMEA C24/16/021 project. Stepan V. Lomov is em. prof. of the Toray Chair for Composite Materials at KU Leuven, the support of which is greatly acknowledged.

Keywords

  • A. Carbon nanotubes and nanofibers
  • A. Nanocomposites
  • B. Permeability
  • E. Liquid composite molding

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