Influence of build angles on thin-wall geometry and surface texture in laser powder directed energy deposition

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Metal additive manufacturing (AM) is being used for mission-critical applications in both developmental and production components, driven by economic and technical benefits. Laser powder directed energy deposition (LP-DED) allows manufacturing of thin wall geometric features for various components at diameters larger than 2 m. The characterization of geometric capabilities and limitations is critical for establishing guidelines for end users of the technology. Within this study, several samples of enclosed vertical tracks were fabricated and characterized using LP-DED, with 1 mm-thick walls and varying inclination angles up to 45° using the NASA HR-1 alloy (Fe-Ni-Cr). The wall thickness, melt pool, and surface texture, inclusive of waviness and roughness, were evaluated and results presented. The experimental results indicate that the wall thickness increases exponentially above 30°. The surface texture was shown to be dependent on 1) excess powder adherence, 2) melt pool irregularities causing material droop, and 3) excess material. The experiment revealed that the mean roughness reduces with increasing wall angle for the downskin surface. The upskin roughness reaches a maximum peak at 20° and slowly reduces as powder adheres within the valleys. Both the downskin and upskin surface textures are dominated by irregular waviness generated by the melt pool.
Original languageEnglish
Article number112352
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Materials Research and Technology
Publication statusPublished - 2023


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