Inorganic Agents for Enhanced Angiogenesis of Orthopedic Biomaterials

Monika Šalandová, Ingmar A.J. van Hengel*, Iulian Apachitei, Amir A. Zadpoor, Bram C.J. van der Eerden, Lidy E. Fratila-Apachitei

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)
19 Downloads (Pure)


Aseptic loosening of a permanent prosthesis remains one of the most common reasons for bone implant failure. To improve the fixation between implant and bone tissue as well as enhance blood vessel formation, bioactive agents are incorporated into the surface of the biomaterial. This study reviews and compares five bioactive elements (copper, magnesium, silicon, strontium, and zinc) with respect to their effect on the angiogenic behavior of endothelial cells (ECs) when incorporated on the surface of biomaterials. Moreover, it provides an overview of the state-of-the-art methodologies used for the in vitro assessment of the angiogenic properties of these elements. Two databases are searched using keywords containing ECs and copper, magnesium, silicon, strontium, and zinc. After applying the defined inclusion and exclusion criteria, 59 articles are retained for the final assessment. An overview of the angiogenic properties of five bioactive elements and the methods used for assessment of their in vitro angiogenic potential is presented. The findings show that silicon and strontium can effectively enhance osseointegration through the simultaneous promotion of both angiogenesis and osteogenesis. Therefore, their integration onto the surface of biomaterials can ultimately decrease the incidence of implant failure due to aseptic loosening.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2002254
Number of pages26
JournalAdvanced Healthcare Materials
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • angiogenesis
  • bone regeneration
  • orthopedic implants
  • trace elements

Cite this