Is it safe to be attractive? Disentangling the influence of streetscape features on the perceived safety and attractiveness of city streets

V. Milias*, S. Sharifi Noorian, A. Bozzon, A. Psyllidis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Conference proceedings/Edited volumeConference contributionScientificpeer-review

38 Downloads (Pure)


City streets that feel safe and attractive motivate active travel behaviour and promote people’s well-being. However, determining what makes a street safe and attractive is a challenging task because subjective qualities of the streetscape are difficult to quantify. Existing evidence typically focuses on how different street features influence perceived safety or attractiveness, but little is known about what influences both. To fill this knowledge gap, we developed a crowdsourcing tool and conducted a study with 403 participants, who were asked to virtually navigate city streets in Frankfurt, Germany, through a sequence of street-level images, rate locations based on perceived safety and attractiveness, and explain their ratings. Our results contribute new insights regarding the key similarities and differences between the factors influencing perceived safety and attractiveness. We show that the presence of human activity is strongly related to perceived safety, whereas attractiveness is influenced primarily by aesthetic qualities, as well as the number and type of amenities along a street. Moreover, we demonstrate that the presence of construction sites and underpasses has a disproportionately negative impact on perceived safety and attractiveness, outweighing the influence of any other features. We use the results to make evidence-informed recommendations for designing safer and more attractive streets that encourage active travel modes and promote well-being.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationProceedings of the 26th AGILE Conference on Geographic Information Science
EditorsP. van Oosterom, H. Ploeger, A. Mansourian, S. Scheider, R. Lemmens, B. van Loenen
Number of pages12
Publication statusPublished - 2023

Publication series

NameAGILE: GIScience Series
PublisherCopernicus Publications


  • Perceived safety
  • Perceived attractiveness
  • Streetscape features
  • Crowdsourcing
  • Street-level imagery


Dive into the research topics of 'Is it safe to be attractive? Disentangling the influence of streetscape features on the perceived safety and attractiveness of city streets'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this