Lead-time-based freight routing in multi-modal networks considering the Physical Internet

Alireza Shahedi, Federico Gallo*, Mahnam Saeednia, Nicola Sacco

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articleScientificpeer-review

4 Downloads (Pure)


This paper addresses the problem of optimizing the transport of goods in the Physical Internet (PI) framework in a multi-modal setting using a multi-objective mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) approach. The model is specifically designed to meet the requirements related to modular shipments and PI-hubs, and in particular, determines the allocation of modular shipments to each transport mode in an intermodal setting. In doing so, parallel direct connection via road, the delivery times and the transportation costs are minimized. The model is applied to a numerical case study, to test its effectiveness to enhance freight transport efficiency within the PI framework, by exploiting, in particular, all the capacities of the available vehicles. In addition, a sensitivity analysis is conducted on some model parameters, to test its reaction to changes in the supply system and in the objective priorities. Results show that all the shipments are effectively transported between the origin and the destination terminals, they are divided into modules when necessary, and the selected transport modes, allocation strategy, and delivery times vary accordingly to the objective priorities.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)61-80
Number of pages20
JournalJournal of Supply Chain Management Science
Issue number3-4
Publication statusPublished - 2023
EventIPIC 2023 - 9th International Physical Internet Conference: Expanding the Logistics Scope - Wyndham Athens Hotel, Athens, Greece
Duration: 13 Jun 202315 Jun 2023


Funded by European Union - NextGenerationEU. Views and opinions expressed are however those of the authors only and do not necessarily reflect those of the European Union or European Commission. Neither the European Union nor the European Commission can be held responsible for them.


  • freight transport
  • physical internet
  • optimization


Dive into the research topics of 'Lead-time-based freight routing in multi-modal networks considering the Physical Internet'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this